European Nuclear Disarmament (END) was established in the United Kingdom in 1980 with Mary Kaldor as one of its founders members. The END was closely linked to other groups in Eastern Europe and many similar movements were born in France, Germany or the United States, during the Cold War, against nuclear proliferation.
After months of work and preparation, an appeal for European Nuclear Disarmament was launched in the House of Commons. This document was produced by E.P. Thompson, with the collaboration of other personalities, such as Mary Kaldor, Ken Coates and Robin Cook. It demanded an Europe that aligned and without nuclear weapons, from “Poland to Portugal”.